(1)Herscovitz talked about two different research traditions of media sociology respectively from U.S and Europe. In U.S liberal-pluralist tradition, individual journalists enjoy great autonomy; while in European critical, cultural and Marxist tradition, journalists just have the illusion of autonomy. Also, in Schudson and Benson’s articles, they talked about the interrelationship among individuals, organization and other social powers. And I remember in Giltin’s book “the whole world is watching”, he also suggested that journalists in U.S also don’t have the autonomy to report the stories due to they are limited by the newsroom routines and official pressures. My question is: how can we understand a journalist’s autonomy in newsroom? Does “autonomy” really exist in newsroom? If it does, to what extent can it influence organizational routines or structures of power?
(2) Schudson: “It seems to me too simple, though common now, to label this as 'ideology' or the 'common sense' of a hegemonic system. It makes of human beliefs and attitudes a more unified, intentional and functional system than they are. Many beliefs that ruling groups may use for their own ends are rooted much more deeply in human conscious ness and are to be found much more widely in human societies than capitalism or socialism or industrialism or any other modern system of social organization and domination.” Was he saying that there are some cultural beliefs, such as patriarchy, unrelated with political ideology that shapes the new construction? Are these beliefs universal? So, inevitable?
(3)Benson suggested a basic re-categorization of the “major factors” shaping news coverage of politics. These factors are (a) commercial or economic, (b) political, and (c) the interorganizational field of journalism. Is the main focus of media sociology research is on the news coverage of politics? What about news coverage of other issues? Do different news coverage have the same dynamics of construction process?
(4)In terms of empirical studies examining media sociology such as Brazilian one, are most of the surveys or interviews conducted on journalists as a whole? Is there any study that identifies and discusses the difference between reporters and editors in shaping the news?
(5)In media sociology, it seems that there are many articles discussion how individual journalists are restricted by newsroom routines, social and cultural powers, and etc. Is there any research that focuses on how they break through the restriction?